Volume XV, Cross-Cultural Management Journal
Issue 2
Petyo BOSHNAKOV, Georgi MARINOV
 

We use a semantic differential based instrument to assess the main factors in wine demand attitudes of Bulgarian customers. We aim to find out whether specific marketing techniques could alter the demand for such a traditional product as wine in Bulgaria. Given the fact that Bulgarian customers only recently received the possibility to taste imported wines, we find that foreign wines are evaluated mainly through the prejudice of past knowledge, not linked to the actual product. We discover a rigidity in such a prejudice and adhering to "standard" definitions of "prestige" and quality of wines. Most likely the demand for wine in Bulgaria will continue to be focused on local products.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1st December 2013
  • Keywords: Demand for wines, Semantic differential, Bulgarian wines
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th November, 2013
Volume XV, Cross-Cultural Management Journal
Issue 2
Mariana BUNEA
 

The gradual collapse of financial markets in the European Union since the fall of 2008 and the economic crisis in the area of the credit sportfolio level that followed, were generated by several factors, often interdependent, both on a macroeconomic and microeconomic level, and finally leading to the accumulation of excessive risk in the financial system. This excessive risk has been partially caused by the deficiencies in Corporate Governance of the Financial Institutions and especially by banks deficiencies. Even if we can’t put down when the Corporate Governance crisis has started, non-existent or inadequacy of effective control mechanisms determined the excessive risk-taking by most credit institutions. This article aims to evaluate the application of Corporate Governance Principles of the significant players within the Romanian banking system. The research methodology was essentially based on using the questionnaire technique, on published Corporate Governance’s documents, on analysed banks’ websites and on and on the scoring methods utilized) in evaluating the application of Corporate Governance principles.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1st December 2013
  • Keywords: Corporate Governance, Banking system, Supervisory authorities, Risk management, Audit, Shareholder structure
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th November, 2013
Volume XV, Cross-Cultural Management Journal
Issue 2
Alina HAGIU, Marinela BĂRBULESCU
 

The theory of competitive advantage of Michael Porter stated that national competitive advantage is a reflection of a "diamond" which is running properly and efficiently. But if a developing country like Romania does not have the right conditions for effective functioning of the "diamond", what happens? This is the question to which we try to give an answer within this paper. In this respect, the paper aims to analyze the theory of competitive advantage of Michael Porter, followed by an identification of the advantages and criticisms of this theory over time. Finally we make a customization of this theory in the context of the competitive environment in Romania.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1st December 2013
  • Keywords: Competitiveness, Strategy, Performance, Competitive advantage;
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th November, 2013
Volume XV, Cross-Cultural Management Journal
Issue 2
Camelia MORARU, Norina POPOVICI
 

Literature has devoted considerable attention to economic growth because it creates the premises for achieving major goals such as route out of poverty of underdeveloped countries or contribute to raising the standard of living in developed countries. Economic growth has become an “order of the day” term, propagated by various "players" of economic and social life, in this way gaining various interpretations and meanings. This paper presents the results of the measures adopted in order to recover Romanian economic situation. The austerity measures adopted until recently did not allow, however, to create a favorable environment for growth, taking into consideration that it is almost impossible for an economy to grow when conditions are limiting. Fiscal policies have focused on reducing the budget deficit, which led on slaughtering economic growth. Given the uncertain economic context, FDI was hardly drew into our country, their value last year has been insignificant. We can even say that the previous ended year was an economical one, because our country did not recognize the road to the economic recovery.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1st December 2013
  • Keywords: Growth, Fiscal policy, GDP
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th November, 2013
Volume XV, Cross-Cultural Management Journal
Issue 2
Consuela NECȘULESCU, Luminița ȘERBĂNESCU
 

Inflation has been and is considered one of the negative phenomena of the national economy. In this article we aimed to analyse the connection between the inflation rate and a few important macroeconomic variables such as the exchange rate and the nominal average salary as well as the analysis of the evolution in time of these variables. The objective of the research is to prove the causal relationship between the inflation rate and the RON/Euro exchange rate, respectively between the inflation rate and the nominal average salary, which are made using statistical methods and regression methods. The analysis of the trend and of the causal relationships among the three variables uses annual series from the 2000 – 2012 period.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1st December 2013
  • Keywords: Inflation rate, Salary earnings rate, Exchange rate euro/leu, Testul Augmented Dickey‐Fuller
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th November, 2013
Volume XV, Cross-Cultural Management Journal
Issue 2
Silvia-Mihaela PAVEL
 

In today’s consumer society, the wine has gone from being the staple diet to become one of the signs that show the status of the subject, as a demonstration of high rank and taste, aspirations, status, lifestyle, in which having fun, the pleasure, is the fruit of knowledge. It’s a hobby, a leisure culture, an environment implying major activities (vineyard tours, wine tastings, contest criticism), but also a passion ″for lovers of good wines″. The paper commences from the results of a survey carried-out in Romania in 2011, focusing on women purchasing power and consumer behaviour related to wine. The questionnaire included many questions on key dimensions of product-oriented knowledge. This major participation of women in the selection and consumption of wine is interrelated with their independence, with the active role they occupy in the society, especially at a professional and family level. The bottle and the label, the brand and the phrase or slogan identifiers are clearly elements that are associated unambiguously, highlighting a feature that is primarily phatic. Certain brand, image or customer loyalty campaigns alter the balance to emphasize certain aspects, in favour of the referent denoted, from the connotation or appeal towards the recipient, with a greater attention to the text. According to the paradigm of knowledge-based economy, it is often stated that information asymmetry between producers and consumers will be reduced thanks to information availability and dissemination through the Internet or other media channels. As a consequent, for the present approach, it turns out to be interesting to analyze advertising to find out the social values and their relation to the adoption of new linguistic strategies in wine mass-media advertising.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1st December 2013
  • Keywords: Advertising, Linguistic strategies, Consumption, Social values, Wine knowledge
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th November, 2013
Volume XV, Cross-Cultural Management Journal
Issue 2
Elena Monica SABĂU, Cleopatra ŞENDROIU, Florinel Marian SGÂRDEA
 

Anti-fraud strategy development in organization has a positive impact, by reducing the probability of occurrence, detection time and materiality for fraud, however protecting corporate reputation, brand, management credibility, and business itself. Involving accounting profession in corporate governance processes, to ensure compliance, to present a true and fair view for the financial statements, to minimize risks, including the fraud one, involves assigning new responsibilities and expanding its area of deployment for the assurance engagement. The article identifies the main anti-fraud strategy success drivers-work environment with high integrity, ethical organizational culture-being analyzed in terms of composition, development, implementation and qualitative analysis of efficiency and performance. The main factor influencing the occurrence of fraud is the ethics culture and business integrity developed in the company. Its evaluation and its continuous improvement are the corporate governance requirements and prerequisites for the development of an uncorrupted occupational environment, with a proactive attitude in the fight against fraud. The final chapter summarizes the necessary documentation to be used in anti-fraud strategy development and implementation.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1st December 2013
  • Keywords: Antifraud strategy, Tone at the top, Ethics and integrity, Organizational culture, Anti-fraud policy
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th November, 2013
Volume XV, Cross-Cultural Management Journal
Issue 2
Dumitru ZAIŢ, Angelica-Nicoleta ONEA, Ruxandra CIULU, Maria TĂTĂRUŞANU
 

Purpose – The current study examines the relationship between CSR and culture (national and organizational) and outlines other factors of influence.
Design/methodology/approach – use of Corporate Knights Inc. database (Global 100, period 2005-2013); research type: empirical, exploratory; reasoning type: inductive, a posteriori; methods: quantitative analysis, comparative analysis, observation.
Findings – Study results confirm the hypothesis concerning an interconnection between culture and CSR, but outline the influence of other factors, equally important, such as the development level of a country, the company size, the legal framework.
Practical implications/originality/value – Elements that are intended to provide conceptual clarifications, outlining the main factors of influence for CSR. The original approach of the research methodology, by grouping and analyzing data based on cultural clusters. Practical implications: solutions / recommendations for connecting the organizational cultural framework with the values that support CSR.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1st December 2013
  • Keywords: Corporate social responsability, National culture, Organizational culture
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th November, 2013
Volume XV, Cross-Cultural Management Journal
Issue 1
Cristina-Elena ALBU
 

International tourism has grown rapidly nowdays, contributing to the growth of the global economy. The purpose of this essay is to identify and analyze stereotypical factors in the development of strategies concerning the offer for the tourism industry: the image of a tourist destination, brand, country of origin and customer behaviour. Documentary study was the research method used: representative articles were analysed, as recent as possible, to determine the factors mentioned above. Professionals in the industry of tourism need to understand cultural differences between tourists, as well as those of the host country, to be able to create tourist reception offers that live up to the standards expected by clients.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1st July 2013
  • Keywords: Stereotype, Autostereotype, Heterestereoptype, Destination image, Country brand, Country of origin effect, Customers’ behavior, Tourism
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th June, 2013
Volume XV, Cross-Cultural Management Journal
Issue 1
Florin-Constantin DIMA
 

The cost of production has as its starting point the purchase cost of raw materials and consumables, as well as their processing cost and the calculation of the production cost involves complex aspects. This article is based on the two major concepts of costs calculation, namely the concept of full costs and the concept of partial costs, and it analyses the direct-costing calculation method. Necessity of the Development of calculation methods to ensure rapid determination of the cost of production, and the establishment of indicators broad spectrum of information necessary for making decisions to streamline a business activity conducted by direct-costing method. Direct-costing method appeared in the U.S. for the first time in 1934 (applied by Jonathan Harris and G. Charter Harrison). Subsequently, this method was applied to European countries (England, France, Germany etc.). We stopped on this method because it is considered a modern method of costing. Therefore, we analyzed both advantages and limitations of the method in question.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1st July 2013
  • Keywords: Production cost, Direct-costing method, Breakeven point, Coverage factor, Dynamic
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th June, 2013
Volume XV, Cross-Cultural Management Journal
Issue 1
Christina Andreea MIŢARIU
 

After Romania’s political and social changes from the 90s, non-theological university students have asked for the introduction of courses with a religious topic, such as: history of religion, philosophy of religion, psychology of religion, sociology of religion. Beyond an individual’s faith and religion, some knowledge about the religious phenomenon and how the sacred is manifested in cults and churches in our country seem necessary. Social life everywhere is impregnated with the religious dimension. Authentic or secular, “homo religiosus” is a reality that must be taken into account and to which any sociological approach relates.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1st July 2013
  • Keywords: Sacred, Sociology of religion, Psychology of religion, Homo religiosus
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th June, 2013
Volume XV, Cross-Cultural Management Journal
Issue 1
Laura-Maria POPESCU, Ileana NISULEȘCU
 

The article aims to highlight the measures adopted in the financial-banking system in the context of the European integration, according to risk analysis perspectives. The first part provides details on the vulnerability sources in terms of banking risks and their approach from various perspectives. Subsequently, based on the identified risks, a series of measures are proposed to limit them within the banking system. In terms of the work hypotheses, they are confirmed, thus increasing the harmonization level of theories throughout the European Union. Research was based on methods such as analysis, synthesis and induction, used to select the opinion of specialists in the field on the studied matter, and deduction, through the cross-section method, thus following the evolution and measures adopted in time. Following the analysis, a need was noticed for the implementation of an efficient banking risk management system, together with drafting additional regulations, so that the banking system is better prepared to handle new challenges generated by the crisis. The term afferent to the accession and integration in the European Union implied a stage requiring a radical change of the Romanian banking system, considering issues such as Romania’s economic development, leading to an increase of the banking mediation process.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1st July 2013
  • Keywords: Banking system, European integration, Banking risk, Prevention mechanism, Financial crisis, Risk culture
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th June, 2013
Volume XV, Cross-Cultural Management Journal
Issue 1
Andreea ROŞOIU, Iulia ROŞOIU
 

The transmission channels of monetary policy are used by central banks to accomplish the main objective of price stability in the context of sustainable economic growth. The importance of interest rate and exchange rate channels for the emerging countries Romania, Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary is analyzed by using Bayesian VAR approach with Diffuse priors over 1998Q1-2012Q3. Main result of the empirical study is that both channels are effective for the monetary policy transmission mechanism in Hungary and Czech Republic. In Romania and Poland they do not exhibit puzzles, but the impact of the macroeconomic variables is not very significant and shows very high volatility. In the context of monetary integration, exchange rate channel will become irrelevant when these countries adopt Euro currency. This change will lead instead to a powerful interest rate channel.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1st July 2013
  • Keywords: Monetary policy, Transmission mechanism, Bayesian VAR approach, Emerging countries, Interest rate channel, Exchange rate channel
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th June, 2013
Volume XV, Cross-Cultural Management Journal
Issue 1
Silviu-Marius SEITAN
 

By taking into consideration the actual difficult macroeconomic situation of some of the Member States of the Euro Zone, as it was already published, as a scenario, about the possibility of the avoiding the member State position, the present paper will propose, as analyzing subjects, the main impact elements on the other European national economies of such producing scenario. The main risks associated of such scenario, even if such process is an administrated one, are the following ones: the depreciation of the Euro as a result of the economic instability perception at the Euro Zone level; the reducing of the European Budget incomes; the reducing of the European Central banks working founds; a very important risk which also have the character of a political risk and which have an important position being a source of complex and difficult European macroeconomic problems and also which could become the precedent thus created towards other member states possible process of avoiding the member state position.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1st July 2013
  • Keywords: Macroeconomic, Risk, Exchange, Administration, System, Conjuncture, Instability
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th June, 2013
Volume XV, Cross-Cultural Management Journal
Issue 1
Monica-Marcela ȘERBAN
 

It has been stated that both the word “culture” and the syntagm “cultural realities” have influenced both communication and translation to a great extent. Moreover, the syntagm “speech community” has been tackled from many perspectives. One of them is that it cannot be determined by static physical location but it may represent an insight into a nation state, village, religious institutions, and so on. Although speech communities may take any and all of these shapes and more, it is not a flexible concept, altering shape and meaning according to any new gathering of people. Linguists offered different definitions of the syntagm ‘speech communities’, each definition representing a new perspective in approaching this term. Translating cultural realities constitutes not only a challenge but also an audacity on the part of the translator. In this respect, we have chosen to cross the religious communities and survey both their language and cultural realities and how they are mediated in translation. Consequently, translating religious terminology requires the translator’s competence since it encompasses the Truth that has to be accurately reproduced in the TC (target culture). His/her task is also to raise the target reader’s awareness of such realities and language.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1st July 2013
  • Keywords: Cultural realities, Speech communities, Practices, Awareness, Competence, Translator
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th June, 2013
Volume XV, Cross-Cultural Management Journal
Issue 1
Carmen-Laura ZARZU
 

The current essay focuses on the need for formal education in the area of intercultural communication and training of intercultural competences. It builds on cultural identity and diversity literature, on the experiment conducted in the Low Countries in introducing a new topic for students from social sciences referring to intercultural communication and on reports and papers of international companies, organizations and agencies. The argument of globalization which should give equal opportunities to each and every world’s citizen adds pressure on managers dealing with multicultural teams. Intercultural competences gain importance in recruiting, while turning cultural diversity in team performance requires skills, knowledge and experience. Managing cultural diversity presupposes that people are aware, recognize, understand and deal with differences. Thus intercultural communication should be studied as a stand-alone topic or imbedded in other subjects in different forms of education or training, so people are prepared for intercultural, social and professional relationships.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 1st July 2013
  • Keywords: Intercultural communication, Intercultural competences, Cultural diversity
  • Final revision and acceptance: 20th June, 2013